Publicado

2017-01-01

Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals

¿La letra con sangre entra? Maltrato en internos de Medicina en tres hospitales de Perú

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752

Palabras clave:

Bullying, Medicine Students, Medical Education (en)
Maltrato, Estudiantes de medicina, Educación médica (es)

Autores/as

  • Miguel Achata-Espinoza Universidad de San Martín de Porres – Lima Campus – Faculty of Medicine - Chiclayo, Peru
  • Carmen Rosa Muñoz-Dueñas Universidad de San Martín de Porres – Lima Campus – Faculty of Medicine - Chiclayo, Peru
  • Sarai Cabrejos-Llontop Universidad de San Martín de Porres – Lima Campus – Faculty of Medicine - Chiclayo, Peru
  • Carlos Jesus Toro-Huamanchumo Trainee in the Association for the Study of Medical Education (TASME) - Edinburgh - Scotland.

Dear Editor,

Bullying has traditionally been considered normal during health professional training (1). However, it is now recognized as harmful to both academic traiwning and mental and emotional health, with negative consequences such as low career satisfaction, depression, burnout syndrome, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (2,3).

The hierarchy observed in the different stages of the medical career facilitates power abuse and makes medical students vulnerable. Likewise, frequently undervaluing abuse leads to less willingness to report bullying cases, and in the continuity of this behavior over time (1,4). During medical internships, students are also considered as workers, which increases the chances of being bullied; in addition, the training environment differs from what they experienced early in their career (3).

Dear Editor,

Bullying has traditionally been considered normal during health professional training (1). However, it is now recognized as harmful to both academic traiwning and mental and emotional health, with negative consequences such as low career satisfaction, depression, burnout syndrome, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (2,3).

The hierarchy observed in the different stages of the medical career facilitates power abuse and makes medical students vulnerable. Likewise, frequently undervaluing abuse leads to less willingness to report bullying cases, and in the continuity of this behavior over time (1,4). During medical internships, students are also considered as workers, which increases the chances of being bullied; in addition, the training environment differs from what they experienced early in their career (3).

25-62752

carta al editor

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752

Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals

¿La letra con sangre entra? Maltrato en internos de Medicina en tres hospitales de Perú

Received: 17/02/2017. Accepted: 28/03/2017.

Miguel Achata-Espinoza1 Carmen Rosa Muñoz-Dueñas1 Sarai Cabrejos-Llontop1 Carlos Jesús Toro-Huamanchumo2

1 Universidad de San Martín de Porres – Lima Campus – Faculty of Medicine - Chiclayo, Peru

2 Trainee in the Association for the Study of Medical Education (TASME) - Edinburgh - Scotland.

Corresponding author: Carlos Jesús Toro-Huamanchumo. Association for the Study of Medical Education (ASME), Edinburgh, UK. Thain House, 226 Queensferry Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2BP. Phone: +51 944942888. Email: toro2993@hotmail.com.

Dear Editor,

Bullying has traditionally been considered normal during health professional training (1). However, it is now recognized as harmful to both academic traiwning and mental and emotional health, with negative consequences such as low career satisfaction, depression, burnout syndrome, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (2,3).

The hierarchy observed in the different stages of the medical career facilitates power abuse and makes medical students vulnerable. Likewise, frequently undervaluing abuse leads to less willingness to report bullying cases, and in the continuity of this behavior over time (1,4). During medical internships, students are also considered as workers, which increases the chances of being bullied; in addition, the training environment differs from what they experienced early in their career (3).

In December 2016, we conducted a study to determine the characteristics of bullying perceived during medical internship. A previously validated questionnaire (1) was applied to medical interns in three hospitals subscribed to the Ministry of Health (MINSA) in Chiclayo, Peru. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: 1) sociodemographic data (sex, age and hospital), and 2) perception of bullying according to psychological, physical, academic and sexual components.

70 medical interns were surveyed, 20 from Hospital Belén de Lambayeque, 20 from Hospital Regional de Lambayeque, and 30 from Hospital Las Mercedes. The median age was 25 (IQR: 22-30), and 37 participants (52.9%) were male. The universities of origin were Universidad San Martín de Porres (30/70), Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo (18/70), Universidad Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo (11/70), Universidad de Chiclayo (10/70) and Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (1/70).

The study found that all participants had perceived some type of bullying at least once during the course of the internship. Regarding the psychological component, the most frequent types of bullying (at least once a month) were being shouted at (64/70), and receiving unjustified criticism (64/70) and negative or derogatory comments (59/70). In relation to the physical component, students reported being assigned excessive work (58/70); in the academic component, they were assigned tasks as punishment while others took credit for their work (both 62/70), and in the sexual component, students received sexual or obscene comments and were shown offensive sexual images (both 35/70) (Figure 1).

Results show that bullying is frequently perceived by the medical interns of these hospitals. Previous studies conducted in Peru (1) and Chile (3) showed similar results, reporting at least one incident in 89.8% and 90.9%, respectively, being verbal abuse the most common one.

These results reflect an institutional culture that facilitates and promotes power abuse (1,5). To avoid this in the future, making teachers and medical students aware of the harmful effects of bullying on academic performance and emotional health is highly important. A study by Fried et al. (2012) concluded that the creation of a Gender and Power Abuse Prevention Committee, as well as implementing anonymous periodic evaluations to medical students, may have a beneficial but limited effect on the reduction of bullying cases. Furthermore, they suggest that to achieve greater impact, institutional and national zero tolerance policies are required (4).

Bullying and medical education do not go hand in hand. The next generations of health professionals have the responsibility to humanize the relationship between doctor and patients, and also between doctor and students.

Authors’ contribution

All authors contributed to the conception and design of the study, analyzed and interpreted the data collected, drafted the manuscript, critically revised the content, and gave their final approval.

Funding

None stated by the authors.

Conflict of interests

None stated by the authors.

Figure 1. Types of bullying perceived by medical interns from three hospitals of the Ministry of Health. Lambayeque, Peru 2016.
Source: Own elaboration based on the data obtained in the study.

References

1.Munayco-Guillén F, Cámara-Reyes A, Muñoz-Tafur LJ, Arroyo-Hernández H, Mejia CR, Lem-Arce F, et al. Características del maltrato hacia estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del Perú. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016;33(1):58-66.
http://doi.org/b56x.

2.Cook AF, Arora VM, Rasinski KA, Curlin FA, Yoon JD. The prevalence of medical student mistreatment and its association with burnout. Acad Med. 2014;89(5):749-54. http://doi.org/bbz6.

3.Maida SA, Herskovic MV, Pereira SA, Salinas-Fernández L, Esquivel CC. Percepción de conductas abusivas en estudiantes de medicina. Rev Med Chile. 2006;134(12):1516-23. http://doi.org/cpshcv.

4.Fried JM, Vermillion M, Parker NH, Uijtdehaage S. Eradicating medical student mistreatment: a longitudinal study of one institution’s efforts. Acad Med. 2012;87(9):1191-8. http://doi.org/bbzx.

5.Bermeo JL, Castaño-Castrillón JJ, López-Román A, Téllez DC, Toro-Chica S. Abuso académico a estudiantes de pregrado por parte de docentes de los programas de Medicina de Manizales, Colombia. Rev. Fac. Med. 2016;64(1):9-19. http://doi.org/bjh3

Recibido: 17 de febrero de 2017; Aceptado: 28 de marzo de 2017

Dear Editor,

Bullying has traditionally been considered normal during health professional training 1. However, it is now recognized as harmful to both academic traiwning and mental and emotional health, with negative consequences such as low career satisfaction, depression, burnout syndrome, and post-traumatic stress symptoms 2,3.

The hierarchy observed in the different stages of the medical career facilitates power abuse and makes medical students vulnerable. Likewise, frequently undervaluing abuse leads to less willingness to report bullying cases, and in the continuity of this behavior over time 1,4. During medical internships, students are also considered as workers, which increases the chances of being bullied; in addition, the training environment differs from what they experienced early in their career 3.

In December 2016, we conducted a study to determine the characteristics of bullying perceived during medical internship. A previously validated questionnaire 1 was applied to medical interns in three hospitals subscribedto the Ministry of Health (MINSA) in Chiclayo, Peru. The questionnaire was divided into two parts: 1) sociodemographic data (sex, age and hospital), and 2) perception of bullying according to psychological, physical, academic and sexual components.

70 medical interns were surveyed, 20 from Hospital Belén de Lambayeque, 20 from Hospital Regional de Lambayeque, and 30 from Hospital Las Mercedes. The median age was 25 (IQR: 22-30), and 37 participants (52.9%) were male. The universities of origin were Universidad San Martín de Porres (30/70), Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo (18/70), Universidad Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo (11/70), Universidad de Chiclayo (10/70) and Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego (1/70).

The study found that all participants had perceived some type of bullying at least once during the course of the internship. Regarding the psychological component, the most frequent types of bullying (at least once a month) were being shouted at (64/70), and receiving unjustified criticism (64/70) and negative or derogatory comments (59/70). In relation to the physical component, students reported being assigned excessive work (58/70); in the academic component, they were assigned tasks as punishment while others took credit for their work (both 62/70), and in the sexual component, students received sexual or obscene comments and were shown offensive sexual images (both 35/70) (Figure 1).

Types of bullying perceived by medical interns from three hospitals of the Ministry of Health. Lambayeque, Peru 2016.

Figure 1: Types of bullying perceived by medical interns from three hospitals of the Ministry of Health. Lambayeque, Peru 2016.

Source: Own elaboration based on the data obtained in the study.

Results show that bullying is frequently perceived by the medical interns of these hospitals. Previous studies conducted in Peru 1 and Chile 3) showed similar results, reporting at least one incident in 89.8% and 90.9%, respectively, being verbal abuse the most common one.

These results reflect an institutional culture that facilitates and promotes power abuse 1,5. To avoid this in the future, making teachers and medical students aware of the harmful effects of bullying on academic performance and emotional health is highly important. A study by Fried et al. (2012) concluded that the creation of a Gender and Power Abuse Prevention Committee, as well as implementing anonymous periodic evaluations to medical students, may have a beneficial but limited effect on the reduction of bullying cases. Furthermore, they suggest that to achieve greater impact, institutional and national zero tolerance policies are required 4.

Bullying and medical education do not go hand in hand. The next generations of health professionals have the responsibility to humanize the relationship between doctor and patients, and also between doctor and students.

Authors' contribution

All authors contributed to the conception and design of the study, analyzed and interpreted the data collected, drafted the manuscript, critically revised the content, and gave their final approval.

Funding

None stated by the authors.

Conflict of interests

None stated by the authors.

References

1. Munayco-Guillén F, Cámara-Reyes A, Muñoz-Tafur LJ, Arroyo-Hernández H, Mejia CR, Lem-Arce F, et al. Características del maltrato hacia estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del Perú. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016;33(1):58-66. http://doi.org/b56x.[Link]

2. Cook AF, Arora VM, Rasinski KA, Curlin FA, Yoon JD. The prevalence of medical student mistreatment and its association with burnout. AcadMed. 2014;89(5):749-54. http://doi.org/bbz6.[Link]

3. Maida SA, Herskovic MV, Pereira SA, Salinas-Fernández L, Esquivel CC. Percepción de conductas abusivas en estudiantes de medicina. Rev Med Chile. 2006;134(12):1516-23. http://doi.org/cpshcv.[Link]

4. Fried JM, Vermillion M, Parker NH, Uijtdehaage S. Eradicating medical student mistreatment: a longitudinal study of one institution's efforts. Acad Med. 2012;87(9):1191-8. http://doi.org/bbzx.[Link]

5. Bermeo JL, Castaño-Castrillón JJ, López-Román A, Téllez DC, Toro-Chica S. Abuso académico a estudiantes de pregrado por parte de docentes de los programas de Medicina de Manizales, Colombia. Rev. Fac. Med. 2016;64(1):9-19. http://doi.org/bjh3[Link]

Referencias

Munayco-Guillén F, Cámara-Reyes A, Muñoz-Tafur LJ, Arroyo-Hernández H, Mejia CR, Lem-Arce F, et al. Características del maltrato hacia estudiantes de medicina de una universidad pública del Perú. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2016;33(1):58-66.

http://doi.org/b56x.

Cook AF, Arora VM, Rasinski KA, Curlin FA, Yoon JD. The prevalence of medical student mistreatment and its association with burnout. Acad Med. 2014;89(5):749-54. http://doi.org/bbz6.

Maida SA, Herskovic MV, Pereira SA, Salinas-Fernández L, Esquivel CC. Percepción de conductas abusivas en estudiantes de medicina. Rev Med Chile. 2006;134(12):1516-23. http://doi.org/cpshcv.

Fried JM, Vermillion M, Parker NH, Uijtdehaage S. Eradicating medical student mistreatment: a longitudinal study of one institution’s efforts. Acad Med. 2012;87(9):1191-8. http://doi.org/bbzx.

Bermeo JL, Castaño-Castrillón JJ, López-Román A, Téllez DC, Toro-Chica S. Abuso académico a estudiantes de pregrado por parte de docentes de los programas de Medicina de Manizales, Colombia. Rev. Fac. Med. 2016;64(1):9-19. http://doi.org/bjh3

Cómo citar

APA

Achata-Espinoza, M., Muñoz-Dueñas, C. R., Cabrejos-Llontop, S., & Toro-Huamanchumo, C. J. (2017). Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, 65(1), 169–170. https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752

ACM

[1]
Achata-Espinoza, M., Muñoz-Dueñas, C.R., Cabrejos-Llontop, S. y Toro-Huamanchumo, C.J. 2017. Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina. 65, 1 (ene. 2017), 169–170. DOI:https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752.

ACS

(1)
Achata-Espinoza, M.; Muñoz-Dueñas, C. R.; Cabrejos-Llontop, S.; Toro-Huamanchumo, C. J. Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals. Rev. Fac. Med. 2017, 65, 169-170.

ABNT

ACHATA-ESPINOZA, M.; MUÑOZ-DUEÑAS, C. R.; CABREJOS-LLONTOP, S.; TORO-HUAMANCHUMO, C. J. Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, [S. l.], v. 65, n. 1, p. 169–170, 2017. DOI: 10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752. Disponível em: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/revfacmed/article/view/62752. Acesso em: 16 ene. 2022.

Chicago

Achata-Espinoza, Miguel, Carmen Rosa Muñoz-Dueñas, Sarai Cabrejos-Llontop, y Carlos Jesus Toro-Huamanchumo. 2017. «Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals». Revista De La Facultad De Medicina 65 (1):169-70. https://doi.org/10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752.

Harvard

Achata-Espinoza, M., Muñoz-Dueñas, C. R., Cabrejos-Llontop, S. y Toro-Huamanchumo, C. J. (2017) «Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals», Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, 65(1), pp. 169–170. doi: 10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752.

IEEE

[1]
M. Achata-Espinoza, C. R. Muñoz-Dueñas, S. Cabrejos-Llontop, y C. J. Toro-Huamanchumo, «Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals», Rev. Fac. Med., vol. 65, n.º 1, pp. 169–170, ene. 2017.

MLA

Achata-Espinoza, M., C. R. Muñoz-Dueñas, S. Cabrejos-Llontop, y C. J. Toro-Huamanchumo. «Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals». Revista de la Facultad de Medicina, vol. 65, n.º 1, enero de 2017, pp. 169-70, doi:10.15446/revfacmed.v65n1.62752.

Turabian

Achata-Espinoza, Miguel, Carmen Rosa Muñoz-Dueñas, Sarai Cabrejos-Llontop, y Carlos Jesus Toro-Huamanchumo. «Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals». Revista de la Facultad de Medicina 65, no. 1 (enero 1, 2017): 169–170. Accedido enero 16, 2022. https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/revfacmed/article/view/62752.

Vancouver

1.
Achata-Espinoza M, Muñoz-Dueñas CR, Cabrejos-Llontop S, Toro-Huamanchumo CJ. Spare the rod, spoil the child: Bullying during medical internship in three Peruvian hospitals. Rev. Fac. Med. [Internet]. 1 de enero de 2017 [citado 16 de enero de 2022];65(1):169-70. Disponible en: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/revfacmed/article/view/62752

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CrossRef Cited-by

CrossRef citations3

1. Carlos A. Carrasco-Farfan, Daniela Alvarez-Cutipa, Jennifer Vilchez-Cornejo, Magaly Lizana-Medrano, Paula A. Durand-Anahua, Jorge A. Rengifo-Sanchez, Alexis Rebatta-Acuña, Wildor S. Cubas, Hugo Arroyo-Hernandez, Carlos J. Toro-Huamanchumo. (2019). Alcohol consumption and suicide risk in medical internship: A Peruvian multicentric study. Drug and Alcohol Review, 38(2), p.201. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12897.

2. Jennifer Vilchez-Cornejo, Ronald David Viera-Morón, Gabriel Larico-Calla, Daniela Carla Alvarez-Cutipa, Juan C. Sánchez-Vicente, Ruth Taminche-Canayo, Carlos Andres Carrasco-Farfan, Alexis Armando Palacios-Zegarra, Cynthia Mendoza-Flores, Pedro Quispe-López, Carlos J. Toro-Huamanchumo. (2020). Depression and Abuse During Medical Internships in Peruvian Hospitals. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 49(2), p.76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcp.2018.08.001.

3. Jennifer Vilchez-Cornejo, Ronald David Viera-Morón, Gabriel Larico-Calla, Daniela Carla Alvarez-Cutipa, Juan C. Sánchez-Vicente, Ruth Taminche-Canayo, Carlos Andres Carrasco-Farfan, Alexis Armando Palacios-Zegarra, Cynthia Mendoza-Flores, Pedro Quispe-López, Carlos J. Toro-Huamanchumo. (2020). Depression and Abuse During Medical Internships in Peruvian Hospitals. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría (English ed.), 49(2), p.75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcpeng.2020.04.003.


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