Publicado

2015-07-01

Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá

Escenarios futuros de la industria de productos agroquímicos fitosanitarios de marca para la floricultura en Bogotá

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995

Palabras clave:

Strategy, positioning, prospective, marketing, brand name, future (en)
Estrategia, posicionamiento, prospectiva, marketing, marca, futuro (es)

Autores/as

  • Héctor Ojeda Mantilla Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Iván Montoya Restrepo Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Using the description of the importance of the floriculture sector and contrasting the identification of the behavior of brand name and generic products in the flower sector, future scenarios were identified for the creation of strategies of market permanence and positioning for brand name agrochemical products. In this case, representatives with broad experience in the floriculture sector of La Sabana de Bogota D.C. were selected, with whom the state of and possible projections for agrochemical products for the sector were evaluated with a prospective methodology. As a result, strategies were generated for achieving market permanence and positioning for brand name agrochemical products.

A partir de la descripción de la importancia del sector floricultor, en contraste con la identificación del comportamiento de los productos de marca y genéricos en el sector de las flores, se realiza la identificación de escenarios futuros para proponer estrategias de posicionamiento y permanencia en el mercado de los productos agroquímicos de marca. En este caso se eligieron representantes de amplia experiencia en el segmento de la floricultura de la Sabana de Bogotá D.C., con quienes se evaluó el estado y las posibles proyecciones de los productos agroquímicos para el sector mediante metodología de prospectiva. Es así como se generaron estrategias para lograr el posicionamiento y permanencia en el mercado de los productos agroquímicos de marca.

Future Scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá

Escenarios futuros de la industria de productos agroquímicos fitosanitarios de marca para la floricultura en Bogotá

 

Héctor Ojeda Mantilla1; Iván Montoya Restrepo2 and Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo3

 

1 Agronomic Engineer, M.Sc. Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Facultad de Agronomía. Carrera 30 No. 45-03, Bogotá, Colombia.<hectoroj@yahoo.es>
2 Associate Professor. Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Facultad de Minas. Carrera 80 No. 65-223 - Núcleo Robledo, Medellín, Colombia. <iamontoyar@unal.edu.co>
3 Associate Professor. Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Facultad de Minas. Carrera 80 No. 65-223 - Núcleo Robledo, Medellín, Colombia. <lamontoyar@unal.edu.co>

 

Received: May 27, 2014; Accepted: April 30, 2015

DOI: 10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Abstract. Using the description of the importance of the floriculture sector and contrasting the identification of the behavior of brand name and generic products in the flower sector, future scenarios were identified for the creation of strategies of market permanence and positioning for brand name agrochemical products. In this case, representatives with broad experience in the floriculture sector of La Sabana de Bogota D.C. were selected, with whom the state of and possible projections for agrochemical products for the sector were evaluated with a prospective methodology. As a result, strategies were generated for achieving market permanence and positioning for brand name agrochemical products.

Key words: Strategy, positioning, prospective, marketing, brand name, future.

Resumen. A partir de la descripción de la importancia del sector floricultor, en contraste con la identificación del comportamiento de los productos de marca y genéricos en el sector de las flores, se realiza la identificación de escenarios futuros para proponer estrategias de posicionamiento y permanencia en el mercado de los productos agroquímicos de marca. En este caso se eligieron representantes de amplia experiencia en el segmento de la floricultura de la Sabana de Bogotá D.C., con quienes se evaluó el estado y las posibles proyecciones de los productos agroquímicos para el sector mediante metodología de prospectiva. Es así como se generaron estrategias para lograr el posicionamiento y permanencia en el mercado de los productos agroquímicos de marca.

Palabras claves: Estrategia, posicionamiento, prospectiva, marketing, marca, futuro.


 

In general, the competitiveness of the flower agroindustry sector has faced relevant challenges in the last decade due to the volatility of the dollar to Colombian peso exchange rate in recent years and to the increase in the price of supplies because many are derived from petroleum, which has a historically high price. In addition, low international prices for flowers have determined the strategies, the decisions and the course of action that floriculture businesses are taking in order to be competitive in the global market and to guarantee their permanence in the sector. The low demand for flowers in various regions due to the global financial crisis that started at the end of 2008 has resulted in a supply that is higher than demand, with a consequent decrease in prices that flower exporters in various regions will pay (Ojeda, 2009). With these considerations, the present document aimed to identify future scenarios for the distribution activities of brand name agrochemical products for the flower sector and the viability of strategies for market permanence and positioning.

According to Santiago and Montoya (2011), the floriculture sector in Colombia has been one of the more important sectors at the export level. In 2009, exports topped out at USD$1.05 billion, as compared to USD$1.114 billion in 2007, a decrease of almost 6% in just two years. In 2010, there was a recovery, for a total of USD$1.240 billion. Asocolflores (2009) established that, in 2009, the cultivated area was 7,200 hectares and, according to the data of Asocolflores (2010), the cultivated area for 2010 was 6,800 hectares, resulting in a huge decrease in the 2008-2010 period, from 7,509 hectares in 2008 to 6,800 in 2010, a decrease of 709 hectares or 9.4% (Santiago and Montoya, 2011). Dinero.com said in an article in 2013 that, according to data from Trade Map, "[…] in 2012, Colombia was the leading exporter of carnations in the world and the second largest exporter of flowers worldwide, with US $ 1,279 million exported. Between January and June 2013, exports totaled US $ 744 million, 9.1 % above the total recorded in the same period of 2012, according to information from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism with Dane data" (Dinero, 2013).This sector, at its best, has had a significant impact on manual labor. According to the data of Asocolflores, for 2005, floriculture generated 94,271 direct jobs and 80,130 indirect jobs, forming a decidedly export industry (more than 95% of the flower production of Colombia is exported) and it is worth mentioning that, in just 35 years, the sector became the second global exporter of fresh-cut flowers, with a participation of 14% in the total commerce, after the Netherlands, which has 56% participation (Ojeda, 2009).

The export dynamics of this sector for Colombia, could be searched by United Nations Commodity Trade code product number name 0603 corresponding to cut flowers and flower buds of a kind suitable for bouquets or for ornamental purposes, fresh, dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise prepared, and data of this code are available through the Trade Map service from the International Trade Center ITC (www.trademap.org). The figures below are the result of consultations on the value of exports and their amounts, which were generated by Trade Map based on information from the CCI Corporación Colombia Internacional (CCI used UN Comtrade until January 2014 and afterwards used DIAN). As can be observed, the sector has been recovering since 2010 in terms of the exported value. The principal destinations are the United States, Russia, and Japan, with Valentine's Day remaining the high season, as can be seen in Table 1.

The preferred export flower is the rose, with almost a 28% share of the total sales (January- November period, 2013) and 24% of the total sold tonnage, followed by the standard Carnation with 13% in tons and 11% in USD values. These shares of the total annual tonnage and dollar value listed in Table 2 were calculated with data from Asocolflores (2015).

According to the information collected by Ojeda (2009), for that year, more than 300 agribusinesses (80% Colombian capital, approximately) indicated that they generated 195,000 direct and indirect jobs and the industry represented 85% of the international air cargo of Colombia and 16% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Bogotá, D.C. and Cundinamarca. Lastly, Ojeda stated that through programs called "Florverde" (Greenflower) and "Cultivemos la paz" (Cultivating Peace), the resolution of familial conflicts has been strengthened through training of the workers, of which 70% are head-of-household females. Primary and secondary education programs have been carried out by financing 70% of the studies, guaranteeing transport to the workers' homes, and facilitating the acquisition or improvement of homes, among others (Ojeda, 2009). The crisis of 2008 led to flower companies trying to recover their competitiveness and profitability through practices such as reductions in the costs of agrochemical supplies, which represent around 6% of the total cost of flower production (Ojeda, 2009). This resulted in a mass introduction of generic agrochemicals, providing lower production costs due to their lower market value. At the same time, the companies are continuously searching for economic alternatives for phytosanitation management, with the cost of production used for phytosanitation control being a management indicator in various companies; even though it is not the factor with the most relevance in the cost structure for the production of flowers, it occupies a privileged position due to the relative ease with which the resources can be managed and assigned, which reflects the significant importance of costs for the technical decisions of some companies.

Behavior of brand name and generic products in the flower sector. As part of the cost reduction initiative, the floriculture sector has increased the use of generic agrochemical products because of the revaluation of the peso to the dollar and the increase in the price of agricultural supplies that are mostly derived from petroleum, which has historically high prices. Therefore, floriculturalists have started using these products as a more favorable alternative, assuming, in some cases, the risk of sacrificing quality for price, among other things, because one of the factors for maintaining competiveness in any business is maintaining the cost structure (Ojeda, 2009). In the flower market, and probably in the agricultural sector as well as other sectors, there is not a clear differentiation between different brand name products and their respective generic ones, - providing an opportunity for generic product companies that do not participate in this market and that have generic molecules or product versions of brand name products that are already registered for sale in the flower market to enter a market and quickly obtain a share (Ojeda, 2009). This situation resulted from a decrease in innovation for new molecules due to a decrease in resources for research and development or disinterest on the part of companies to bring new molecules to the market due to a limited incentive of recovery of their cost of development through the sale of brand name products. It is evident that the use of generic products is resulting in a change of the concepts and behavior of the market, not just for product use decisions, but also for the channels of market distribution (Ojeda, 2009). According to (Ojeda, 2009), the market contains generic products with a value that, in some cases, is 50% or less of the brand name products, resulting in a "price war" and an erosion of the market value. Generic agrochemicals are chemical and/or biological compounds that maintain the same synthetic, dynamic, and technical characteristics of a brand name agrochemical that has lost its patent protection, that is to say, they have the same active ingredient, the same physical consistency, and the same bioequivalence (Olivas, 2008, García, E. (2003), Olivas M. (2008), Ojeda, 2009).

Priority problems for the analysis of future scenarios. The analysis performed by Ojeda (2009), using prospective techniques such as the Delphi Method (oriented to complete successive rounds of questions to seek convergence on identifying elements of analysis by 12 experts), demonstrated that the following elements are the ones of most concern to floriculturists, as shown in Table 3.

The importance of carrying out a prospective analysis of the principal future scenarios (Sánchez et al., 2013) for an initiative of brand name agrochemical supplies was established.

 

METHODOLOGY, INSTRUMENTS AND STUDY COVERAGE

Table 4 shows the methodology used for the prospective analysis, with a voluntarist approach. This table includes the expected results and the techniques used in the methodology.

Processing and analysis of the information. A semi-structured interview was used with a group of 12 relevant individuals (experts from industry and academic sectors), with a SWOT analysis, as well as an interview on topics related to brand name and generic products, by means of a technique called the Delphi Method. As a result of successive rounds with the experts, convergence was achieved around 14 key elements and their respective definitions:

Priorization of key analysis elements. The above analysis elements or key variables were qualified from 0 to 10, for both Importance and Governance, by a group of experts. The rating of importance refers to the degree of relevance that the expert panel attached to each key element, so that a score of 10/10 means high relevancy, while a rating of 1/10 means that the item is rated as low in priority. For its part, the governance refers to the degree of interference with the industry, in the hands of its participants, to make significant changes in each key element. A high score of governance means that is likely to achieve qualitative changes in the key element, while a low rating of governance means that is unlikely to change that element in the short and medium term. After this evaluation, the average value of each of the analysis elements or key variables was obtained for both importance and governance, which are presented below.

With the results obtained from Table 6, it was possible to create a two-axes graph, displaying the importance and governance ratings and establishing quadrants for the qualitative analysis. he following figure exhibits these results.

The IGO analysis provided four zones or quadrants wherein the analysis elements were classified in the following manner:

Strategic variable, Quadrant I: contained the variables that obtained a value above the average for both importance and governance, which were considered strategic variables, the more important variables. They are expected to have the largest impact on the development of a project from the point of view of the consulted experts. For the effects of this study, the strategic variables included the following:

6. Cost-benefit ratio.
10. Low Price.
11. Commercial negotiation.
14. Product rotation.

Challenging Variables, Quadrant II: According to the methodology (Godet 1996; Mojica 2002, smIDA, 2004, Riascos, 2012), some variables exist that are considered challenges, those that have importance above the average but have governance below the average. Challenging variables form the characteristics that must be strengthened immediately and for the long-term. In this case, they included:

4. Confidence.
5. Quality.

Variables of little importance or exclusion, Quadrant III: the following variables were qualified as being below the respective averages both for importance and governance, meaning they are the variables that require less attention in relation to the rest of the identified variables:

1. Availability.
2. Generic Product.
3. New Product.
8. Waiting period.
9. Economic situation.

Governable or exit variables, Quadrant IV: there are some variables that were qualified as being above the average for governance but below the average for importance, meaning that they possibly depend on an administrative decision for their implementation; the following variables were in this quadrant:

7. Low toxicological level.
12. Costs.
13. Aggregate value.

According to this study and the results obtained with the IGO matrix in quadrants I and II, these variables can be used as inputs for Peter Schwartz´s axes. This way, the variables of quadrant I (strategic variables) and those of quadrant II (challenges variables) can be grouped into two sets of categories, according to the observations of the consulted experts: the attributes of the market, and the attributes of the product.

Using the methodology for constructing the Schwartz axes (following the methodology proposed by Mojica, 2002), the X axis was assigned the attributes of the product and the Y axis was assigned the attributes of the market, using the previously-identified variables.

It was observed that a large part of the strategic variables and the challenged variables were cataloged as product attributes, meaning that the majority of actions must be geared toward the product; that is to say, the most important differentiator was the product (Ojeda, 2009).

With this categorization, the description of the scenarios proceeded based on the Schwartz axes technique.

In the desired scenario (X,+; Y,+), LIFE IS BEAUTIFUL, the following strategies, formed as objectives and actions, are proposed with a voluntarist approach:

Actions to pass from the probable scenario. The Wager Continues, to the desired scenario, Life is Beautiful. Due to the fact that the probable scenario, The Wager Continues, is the tendency, it is relevant to indicate actions that could change this scenario to the Life is Beautiful scenario. To achieve this, it is necessary to achieve actions that impact the identified variables that correspond to the grouping on the Y axis, which include a low price, commercial negotiation, and product rotation. With the participation of the expert panel and iterative rounds of answers, the necessary objectives for changing the probable scenario to the desired scenario are established below for each of the indicated variables:

 

CONCLUSIONS

The competition between brand name products and generic products tends to demonstrate itself as an alternative in the segmentation of mature industries, and so, companies will have to do more work in various fields, such as, for example, in the segmentation of clients, in order to protect themselves from mass attacks by the competition; they will also have to differentiate and position the brand, respond quickly to new challenges in the market, provide client information for breaking the paradigm that generic products are the same as the brand products but cheaper (a product is more than just the active ingredient), and find ways of making the products into concepts in order to decrease the possibility of substitution by a generic product. Agrochemical products that have lost their patent now compete with substitutes that possess the same active ingredient but are produced by other companies called generics, which are placed on the market at a lower cost for the following reasons:

  • They only manufacture successful molecules at large-sale volumes.
  • Investment in research and development is almost nothing because it is only necessary to demonstrate the corresponding formula of a registered brand name product.
  • Manufacturers of these products use facilities in China and India to start, where production cost and sometimes quality control are very low (Ojeda, 2009).

It is necessary to know the client in order to really know if they respond to elements such as quality, security, control, price, availability, opportunity, and support.

At this time, the market is demonstrating an instinctive response to the current situation, the revaluation of the Colombian peso, the recession in the target markets of these products, and the increase in the price of fuels, etc. These elements make reinvestment all the more critical and, for this reason, emergent strategies are returning, such as lowering production costs and seeking efficient technical alternatives at a lower cost, among others (Ojeda, 2009).

With time, the market will differentiate brand name products and generic products as well as good-quality generic products and bad-quality generic products in relation to their attributes or worth (Ojeda, 2009). From the scenario projection, it is expected that the industry could present cyclical periods of alternation between generic and branded products: After a major proliferation of low-cost generic products, a rise of emerging strategies based on product differentiation that will give prominence to brand agrochemicals is anticipated, which may lead to a favorable trend towards branded products by means of promoting their effectiveness among customers. The expectation is that this cycle will present alternations between strategic groups of generic and brand name competitors. It is relevant to carry out further studies to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of an industry with generic and branded products, such as a fragmented industry with strategic groups. Moreover, it is also important to perform new studies that consider the validity of the experts' claim that the preeminence of the costs is the only valid argument for using branded products. The existence of factors such as resistance and toxicity should also be considered, not only within the context of a competitive industry, but also inside the development of agriculture as an integral and sustainable activity.

 

REFERENCES

Asocolflores. 2009. Colombian floriculture, 2009. http://www.asocolflores.org/. Accessed, May 2015.

Asocolflores. 2010. Colombian floriculture. 2010. http://www.asocolflores.org/. Accessed, May 2015.

Asocolflores. 2015. Boletin_exportaciones-2014_Enero-noviembre_2014. http://www.asocolflores.org/aym_document/BOLETINES/Boletin_exportaciones-2014_Enero-noviembre_2014.pdf. Accessed, May 2015.

CCI Corporación Colombia Internacional. 2014. In International Trade Center ITC. http://ww.trademap.org. Accessed, May 2015.

Dinero. 2013. Encantados con las flores colombianas, Disponible en: http://www.dinero.com/pais/articulo/encantados-flores-colombianas/185089. Accessed, May, 2015.

García, E.R. 2003. Una mirada a la propiedad intelectual de agroquímicos desde la perspectiva Latinoamericana. Revista e-Mercatoria, (1): 68-82. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3628456

Godet, M. 1996. De la Anticipación a la Acción. Editorial Alfaomega. Bogotá, Colombia.

ITM. Trademap. 2015. Estadísticas del comercio para el desarrollo internacional de las empresas. http://www.trademap.org/Index.aspx, Accessed, May 2015.

Mojica, F. 2002. La prospectiva. Técnicas para visualizar el futuro. Editorial Legis. Bogotá Colombia.

Ojeda, H. 2009. Análisis de escenarios futuros de la industria de productos agroquímicos fitosanitarios de marca para la floricultura de la sabana de Bogotá. Tesis de Grado Magister en Ciencias Agrarias, énfasis en desarrollo Empresarial Agropecuario. Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Olivas M. 2008. Genéricos o marcas? El dilema de los productos agroquímicos. Upanic. La Revista Agropecuaria (Nicaragua) (8): 4-6.

Riascos S. 2012. Knowledge Management: Uma Ferramenta Efetiva Para A Construção De Cenários Na Perspectiva Tecnológica. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión, 20(1): 107-121. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=90924279008

Sánchez, B., I. Montoya y A. Montoya. 2013. Aplicación del enfoque integrado de prospectiva y estrategia para el mejoramiento al proceso de selección docente de la universidad nacional de Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Revista INNOVAR 23(48): 43-54. http://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/innovar/article/view/40489/42326

Santiago, D. y I. Montoya. 2011. El perfil competitivo local como factor determinante para el desarrollo de la floricultura en Madrid Cundinamarca. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Bogotá. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0121-68052011000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Smida, A. 2004. Utilisation des ingrédients de prospective comme leviers de stratégie. Innovar 23: 24-39. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=81802303

Referencias

Asocolflores. 2009. Colombian floriculture, 2009. http://www.asocolflores.org/. Accessed, May 2015.

Asocolflores. 2010. Colombian floriculture. 2010. http://www.asocolflores.org/. Accessed, May 2015.

Asocolflores. 2015. Boletin_exportaciones-2014_Enero-noviembre_2014. http://www.asocolflores.org/aym_document/BOLETINES/Boletin_exportaciones-2014_Enero-noviembre_2014.pdf. Accessed, May 2015.

CCI Corporación Colombia Internacional. 2014. In International Trade Center ITC. http://ww.trademap.org. Accessed, May 2015.

Dinero. 2013. Encantados con las flores colombianas, Disponible en: http://www.dinero.com/pais/articulo/encantados-flores-colombianas/185089. Accessed, May, 2015.

García, E.R. 2003. Una mirada a la propiedad intelectual de agroquímicos desde la perspectiva Latinoamericana. Revista e-Mercatoria, (1): 68-82. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3628456

Godet, M. 1996. De la Anticipación a la Acción. Editorial Alfaomega. Bogotá, Colombia.

ITM. Trademap. 2015. Estadísticas del comercio para el desarrollo internacional de las empresas. http://www.trademap.org/Index.aspx, Accessed, May 2015.

Mojica, F. 2002. La prospectiva. Técnicas para visualizar el futuro. Editorial Legis. Bogotá Colombia.

Ojeda, H. 2009. Análisis de escenarios futuros de la industria de productos agroquímicos fitosanitarios de marca para la floricultura de la sabana de Bogotá. Tesis de Grado Magister en Ciencias Agrarias, énfasis en desarrollo Empresarial Agropecuario. Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Olivas M. 2008. Genéricos o marcas? El dilema de los productos agroquímicos. Upanic. La Revista Agropecuaria (Nicaragua) (8): 4-6.

Riascos S. 2012. Knowledge Management: Uma Ferramenta Efetiva Para A Construção De Cenários Na Perspectiva Tecnológica. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión, 20(1): 107-121. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=90924279008

Sánchez, B., I. Montoya y A. Montoya. 2013. Aplicación del enfoque integrado de prospectiva y estrategia para el mejoramiento al proceso de selección docente de la universidad nacional de Colombia. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Revista INNOVAR 23(48): 43-54. http://www.revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/innovar/article/view/40489/42326

Santiago, D. y I. Montoya. 2011. El perfil competitivo local como factor determinante para el desarrollo de la floricultura en Madrid Cundinamarca. Revista Facultad de Ciencias Económicas: Investigación y Reflexión, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Bogotá. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0121-68052011000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Smida, A. 2004. Utilisation des ingrédients de prospective comme leviers de stratégie. Innovar 23: 24-39. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=81802303

Cómo citar

APA

Ojeda Mantilla, H., Montoya Restrepo, I., & Montoya Restrepo, L. A. (2015). Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 68(2), 7743-7753. https://doi.org/10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995

ACM

[1]
Ojeda Mantilla, H., Montoya Restrepo, I. y Montoya Restrepo, L.A. 2015. Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín. 68, 2 (jul. 2015), 7743-7753. DOI:https://doi.org/10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995.

ACS

(1)
Ojeda Mantilla, H.; Montoya Restrepo, I.; Montoya Restrepo, L. A. Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín 2015, 68, 7743-7753.

ABNT

OJEDA MANTILLA, H.; MONTOYA RESTREPO, I.; MONTOYA RESTREPO, L. A. Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, [S. l.], v. 68, n. 2, p. 7743-7753, 2015. DOI: 10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995. Disponível em: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/refame/article/view/50995. Acesso em: 28 nov. 2021.

Chicago

Ojeda Mantilla, Héctor, Iván Montoya Restrepo, y Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo. 2015. «Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá». Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 68 (2):7743-53. https://doi.org/10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995.

Harvard

Ojeda Mantilla, H., Montoya Restrepo, I. y Montoya Restrepo, L. A. (2015) «Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá», Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 68(2), pp. 7743-7753. doi: 10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995.

IEEE

[1]
H. Ojeda Mantilla, I. Montoya Restrepo, y L. A. Montoya Restrepo, «Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá», Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín, vol. 68, n.º 2, pp. 7743-7753, jul. 2015.

MLA

Ojeda Mantilla, H., I. Montoya Restrepo, y L. A. Montoya Restrepo. «Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá». Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, vol. 68, n.º 2, julio de 2015, pp. 7743-5, doi:10.15446/rfnam.v68n2.50995.

Turabian

Ojeda Mantilla, Héctor, Iván Montoya Restrepo, y Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo. «Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá». Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín 68, no. 2 (julio 1, 2015): 7743-7753. Accedido noviembre 28, 2021. https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/refame/article/view/50995.

Vancouver

1.
Ojeda Mantilla H, Montoya Restrepo I, Montoya Restrepo LA. Future scenarios for the brand name phytosanitary agrochemical industry in the floriculture of Bogotá. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín [Internet]. 1 de julio de 2015 [citado 28 de noviembre de 2021];68(2):7743-5. Disponible en: https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/refame/article/view/50995

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